CakeDC Blog

TIPS, INSIGHTS AND THE LATEST FROM THE EXPERTS BEHIND CAKEPHP

CakePHP ORM 3.0 Unleashes New, Flexible, and Powerful Functions

 

In line with its overall goal of eliminating redundancy and increasing efficiency, the new ORM has replaced several functions in the earlier versions with newer and significantly improved functions or functionality. Among the functions affected, we will confine ourselves here to three functions, commands, or processes:

1. afterFind or virtual fields

Developers of previous versions will recall how extensively they had to use afterFind callback and virtual fields to generate data properties. In the new CakePHP 3.0, this is no longer necessary and has been removed in favor of virtual properties on entities which are easier and more powerful. For example, using this method, properties can be generated on the fly to user entities with both first and last names by adding an accessor for full_name. Here is a code example.

By defining accessors you can provide access to fields/properties that do not actually exist. For example if your users table has first_name and last_name you could create a method for the full name:

namespace App\Model\Entity;

use Cake\ORM\Entity;

class User extends Entity
{

    protected function _getFullName()
    {
        return $this->_properties['first_name'] . '  ' .
            $this->_properties['last_name'];
    }

}

You can access virtual fields as if they existed on the entity. The property name will be the lower case and underscored version of the method:

echo $user->full_name;

Do bear in mind that virtual fields cannot be used in finds.

Once a code segment similar to the above has been defined, the new property can be accessed easily using $user->full_name. Moreover, you can build aggregated data sets from your results. Note also that though virtual fields no longer constitute an explicit feature of ORM, you will still be able to achieve the same result using query builder and expression objects which are more powerful and flexible. Here is a code example that will make this clear.

2. Definition of Associations

Another extremely important feature introduced in CakePHP 3.0 is the use of methods to create associations. Instead of defining associations using properties like $belongsTo and $hasMany, this significant attribute uses methods that bypass the many inherent limitations of class definitions by allowing only one way of defining associations. Furthermore, the same API handles the “initialize” method and all other parts of your application code when manipulating associations. This is much more efficient and significantly improves productivity. Here is a code snippet to illustrate this.

class ArticlesTable extends Table
{

   public function initialize(array $config)
   {
       $this->belongsTo('Authors');

       $this->hasMany('Comments', [
           'className' => 'Comments',
           'conditions' => ['approved' => true]
       ]);

       $this->hasMany('UnapprovedComments', [
           'className' => 'Comments',
           'conditions' => ['approved' => false],
           'propertyName' => 'unapproved_comments'
       ]);
   }
}

Beside the use of methods to create associations as shown in the example above, the awkward name hasAndBelongsToMany has been renamed to belongsToMany.

As if the above enhancements were not enough, CakePHP 3.0 has equipped developers with the ability to create custom association classes which will be a welcome relief as a safety valve for situations where the built-in relation types do not meet specific requirements. For more details on creating associations, please consult our section: Associations – Linking Tables together.

3. Validation Rules

Validation plays a crucial role in all software development efforts but if they are to contribute to the overall productivity of the development cycle, the way they are defined and used must be straightforward and easy. When it comes to validation rules, CakePHP 3.0 team introduced an elegant solution to many problems with earlier versions through the use of Validator object to generate validation rules. With this feature, defining multiple sets of rules has become a breeze! Here is an example:

 

class UsersTable extends Table
{

    public function validationPasswordConfirm(Validator $validator)
    {
        $validator
            ->requirePresence('password_confirm', 'create')
            ->notEmpty('password_confirm');

        $validator->add('password', 'custom', [
            'rule' => function ($value, $context) {
                $confirm = Hash::get($context, 'data.password_confirm');
                if (!is_null($confirm) && $value != $confirm) {
                    return false;
                }
                return true;
            },
            'message' => __d('Users', 'Your password does not match your confirm password. Please try again'),
            'on' => ['create', 'update'],
            'allowEmpty' => false
        ]);

        return $validator;
    }

}

In Patch entity validationPasswordConfirm will be applied if is passed in ‘validate’ param.

 

 $user = $this->Users->patchEntity($user, $this->request->data(), ['validate' => 'passwordConfirm']);

What is noteworthy about the above code segment is the ability to define as many validation methods as needed. Notice how each method should be prefixed with validation and should be structured to accept a $validator argument.

Latest articles

TSL/ SSL Certificates Explained – Why your website should have one

SSL certificates are incredibly important if you want a safe and secure site - especially for end user reassurance. But what are they and why should you be concerned if you do not have one for your website? Confidential information can be exposed to prying eyes, hackers or cyber criminals - SSL certificates offer a line of defense against this. SSL - secure sockets layer) certificates are small data files that are digitally bind a cryptographic key to an organization’s details. When installed on a web server, it activates the padlock and the https protocol. This allows for secure connections between a web server to the browser. They were created to protect sensitive data in transmission. It is designed to provide security while remaining simple enough for everyday use. Typically, these certificates are used to secure credit card transactions, data transfers and logins. The SSL protocol has been traditionally used to encrypt and secure transmitted data. Each time a new and more secure version was released, only the version number changed to reflect the update. However, when the update from SSLv3.0 to the new version was released, the version was renamed to TLSv1.0. Because SSL is still the recognised name, this is what most people refer to when describing these certificates - however, you are actually likely using/getting a TLS certificate. This is important to remember if you get a third party to purchase your certificate and you would like to make sure you are getting the right version/protocol. When secured by TLS, connections have one or more of the following properties:

  • The connection is private/secure because symmetric cryptography is used to encrypt the data transmitted.
  • The identity of the communicating parties can be authenticated using public-key cryptography.
  • The connection ensures integrity because each message transmitted includes a message integrity check using a message authentication code to prevent undetected loss or alteration of the data during transmission.
What is important to also know is that browsers are going to start penalising HTTP sites from 2017. Why? Well because browsers, like Google, want to make it known to their users of sites that may be less secure or do not have a SSL certificate and are collecting sensitive information. From January 2017, Google has started flagging HTTP pages that collect passwords or credit card details as non secure. Ideally, website owners should get onto this as soon as possible and ensure that their sites are secured. Visitors have also started to expect secure sites, research has indicated that they are specifically looking out for a ‘padlock’ or secure notification. This is important to sites in general - not only websites with an online store or login portal. SSL is more than just encrypting data submissions. Have you heard about letsencrypt.org? Let’s Encrypt is a free, automated, and open certificate authority (CA), run for the public’s benefit. It is a service provided by the Internet Security Research Group (ISRG). Letsencrypt.org makes certificates more accessible while guiding you with how to properly set it up.  

Upgrade Cloud9 to PHP7.1 for CakePHP 3.4 compatibility

We've been using https://c9.io for some time to run our training sessions for CakePHP, both the free cakephp training sessions and our standard (paid) cakephp training sessions. The service works great, but they provide a default workspace (Ubuntu 14.04 LTS and PHP 5.5.9) not compatible with the latest version of the CakePHP framework (3.4) requiring PHP 5.6+ (7+ strongly recommended). We wanted to provide an automated upgrade script for legacy cloud9 workspaces to PHP7.1 so we created a gist to upgrade the default workspace here https://gist.github.com/steinkel/4eb1cb0b67ddb92f5d5b04646f470cd5 You can execute this gist using the raw link to the script, for example source <(curl RAW_GIST_URL_HERE) Enjoy!

CakePHP API Plugin

Are you creating an API in CakePHP? This task looks very popular these days, and most of our clients need an API to expose certain services to their own rich client applications, or third party services. Even if it's easy to configure CakePHP to expose a REST API, and there are other plugins that could help you building an API, we found ourselves working on specific tweaks per project to adjust the way the API was designed, so we decided to wrap all these ideas and create a specific CakePHP API Plugin including

  • Services definition
  • Integrated CRUD
  • Nested resources
  • Pagination
  • Sorting
  • Associations
  • Versioning
  • Custom Extensions (data format / transformers)
  • Self documentation
We've gathered all the best practices around API building and CakePHP and wrapped them into an easy to install and setup Plugin to be used as the foundation of your API intensive CakePHP projects. Let's walkthru some of the Plugin features using an example application: the bookmarker tutorial http://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/tutorials-and-examples/bookmarks/intro.html We'll assume you've already created a new CakePHP application and configured it to use the bookmarker database (schema dump here http://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/tutorials-and-examples/bookmarks/intro.html#creating-the-database).

Setting up the CakePHP API Plugin

Download the plugin first composer require cakedc/cakephp-api:dev-master Then ensure plugin is loaded in you bootstrap.php file Plugin::load('CakeDC/Api', ['bootstrap' => true, 'routes' => true]);

Now you have an API!

Test your newly configured "default" API using curl curl -X GET http://bookmarker.dev/api/bookmarks You'll get something similar to: { "status": "success", "data": [], "pagination": { "page": 1, "limit": 20, "pages": 0, "count": 0 }, "links": [ { "name": "self", "href": "http:\/\/bookmarker.dev\/api\/bookmarks", "rel": "\/api\/bookmarks", "method": "GET" }, { "name": "bookmarks:add", "href": "http:\/\/bookmarker.dev\/api\/bookmarks", "rel": "\/api\/bookmarks", "method": "POST" } ] } If you look at the provided output you'll identify we've used a JSend default renderer (status, data) and we append some extra data under 'links' (HATEOAS dynamically generated for your CRUDs) and pagination. The specific "extensions" used can be configured and custom extensions created for your specific needs, see https://github.com/CakeDC/cakephp-api/blob/master/docs/Documentation/extensions.md We'll publish a couple tutorials soon covering some of the features implemented, and explaining how did we use the CakePHP API Plugin to address specific use cases. Meanwhile, please check the documentation here https://github.com/CakeDC/cakephp-api/blob/master/docs/Documentation/overview.md

Giving back to the community

This Plugin's development has been sponsored by the Cake Development Corporation. Contact us if you are interested in:  

BOOK A 15 MINUTES FREE
CONSULTING WITH US:
We Bake with CakePHP