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Towards Data Integrity: Validations and Behaviors in CakePHP 3.0

 

Validation
Let us consider “validation” in a little more detail to see how it has been implemented and optimized in CakePHP 3.0. In addition to what we discussed in the earlier sections, validation now incorporates two complementary conceptions or areas. These include 1) data type and format validation and 2) Application rules.

1. Data Type and Format Validation

This part of the validation deals structural aspects such as data type, format validation, and basic types. Unlike in previous versions, validation is applied before ORM entities are created. This is a very useful feature that ensures everything is totally in sync and set in a way that preserves data integrity and the overall stability of the entire application. Moreover, it markedly reduces application errors and inconsistencies throughout the system. It is therefore a significant enhancement over previous versions.

2. Application Rules

Application rules are the second component of validation in CakePHP 3.0 implementation. They play a key role in quality control to ensure that all application rules and workflows are operating in an orderly and systematic fashion. This is implemented through buildRules() method in tables. Here is a code example that uses buildRules() method for articles table.

// In src/Model/Table/ArticlesTable.php

namespace App\Model\Table;

use Cake\ORM\Table;
use Cake\ORM\RulesChecker;

class Articles extends Table
{
    public function buildRules(RulesChecker $rules)
    {
        $rules->add($rules->existsIn('user_id', 'Users'));
        $rules->add(
            function ($article, $options) {
                return ($article->published && empty($article->reviewer));
            },
            'isReviewed', [
                'errorField' => 'published',
                'message' => 'Articles must be reviewed before publishing.'
            ]
        );
        return $rules;
    }
}

Identifier Quoting

Identifier quoting is another CakePHP feature or process that has changed in CakePHP 3.0. In the new release, quoted identifiers, which were expensive and involved a notoriously error-prone process of parsing SQL snippets has been disabled by default - thereby removing a major source of frustration for developers. The only time you may want to enable identifier quoting is when working with column names or table names with special characters or reserved words. Here is how to enable identifier quoting when configuring a connection.

// In config/app.php

'Datasources' => [
    'default' => [
        'className' => 'Cake\Database\Driver\Mysql',
        'username' => 'root',
        'password' => 'super_secret',
        'host' => 'localhost',
        'database' => 'cakephp',
        'quoteIdentifiers' => true
    ]
],


Note: Identifiers in QueryExpression objects require manual quoting or IdentifierExpression objects.

 

Updating Behaviors

Let us now turn to behaviors. As with most features that has to do with ORM, the way behaviors are setup and configured has evolved for smooth integration with the new framework. Among other things, behaviors now attach to table instances. Here are some other significant differences in the way behaviors are handled in CakePHP as compared to earlier versions.

1. Each table that uses a behavior will have its own instance. No storing of “name space” setting in a behavior is required.

2. Method signature for mixin, callback, and base class for behaviors have all changed

3. Finder methods can now be added easily by behaviors.

 

The above, in a nutshell, summarizes the main changes and enhancements in the new ORM and CakePHP 3.0 in general. Like all major releases or upgrades, the new release supplants many processes and functions in previous versions while at the same time adding many brand new features.

But as you go through the initial learning curve, please remember that you, the developer, have been the primary driving force behind the changes and enhancements. Your feedback and critiques over the years was the invaluable source that inspired CakePHP team to produce this groundbreaking and cutting-edge release that you are reviewing.

Latest articles

CakePHP API Plugin

Are you creating an API in CakePHP? This task looks very popular these days, and most of our clients need an API to expose certain services to their own rich client applications, or third party services. Even if it's easy to configure CakePHP to expose a REST API, and there are other plugins that could help you building an API, we found ourselves working on specific tweaks per project to adjust the way the API was designed, so we decided to wrap all these ideas and create a specific CakePHP API Plugin including

  • Services definition
  • Integrated CRUD
  • Nested resources
  • Pagination
  • Sorting
  • Associations
  • Versioning
  • Custom Extensions (data format / transformers)
  • Self documentation
We've gathered all the best practices around API building and CakePHP and wrapped them into an easy to install and setup Plugin to be used as the foundation of your API intensive CakePHP projects. Let's walkthru some of the Plugin features using an example application: the bookmarker tutorial http://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/tutorials-and-examples/bookmarks/intro.html We'll assume you've already created a new CakePHP application and configured it to use the bookmarker database (schema dump here http://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/tutorials-and-examples/bookmarks/intro.html#creating-the-database).

Setting up the CakePHP API Plugin

Download the plugin first composer require cakedc/cakephp-api:dev-master Then ensure plugin is loaded in you bootstrap.php file Plugin::load('CakeDC/Api', ['bootstrap' => true, 'routes' => true]);

Now you have an API!

Test your newly configured "default" API using curl curl -X GET http://bookmarker.dev/api/bookmarks You'll get something similar to: { "status": "success", "data": [], "pagination": { "page": 1, "limit": 20, "pages": 0, "count": 0 }, "links": [ { "name": "self", "href": "http:\/\/bookmarker.dev\/api\/bookmarks", "rel": "\/api\/bookmarks", "method": "GET" }, { "name": "bookmarks:add", "href": "http:\/\/bookmarker.dev\/api\/bookmarks", "rel": "\/api\/bookmarks", "method": "POST" } ] } If you look at the provided output you'll identify we've used a JSend default renderer (status, data) and we append some extra data under 'links' (HATEOAS dynamically generated for your CRUDs) and pagination. The specific "extensions" used can be configured and custom extensions created for your specific needs, see https://github.com/CakeDC/cakephp-api/blob/master/docs/Documentation/extensions.md We'll publish a couple tutorials soon covering some of the features implemented, and explaining how did we use the CakePHP API Plugin to address specific use cases. Meanwhile, please check the documentation here https://github.com/CakeDC/cakephp-api/blob/master/docs/Documentation/overview.md

Giving back to the community

This Plugin's development has been sponsored by the Cake Development Corporation. Contact us if you are interested in:  

Create Google app for web oauth2 login step by step

Here's a step by step tutorial about how to create a web oauth2 app in Google dashboard.

Google app oauth login app 1
  • Add some cool name for your new Google app project and click "Create"
Google app oauth login app 2
  • Under "Library" section, create a new Google+ API project
Google app oauth login app 3
  • Click "Enable" in the dashboard tab
Google app oauth login app 4
  • Under "Credentials" menu, click "Oauth consent screen" tab and enter some cool name to be displayed to users when requesting their access to your application. Then click "Save".
Google app oauth login app 5
  • Under "Credentials" menu, click "Create credentials" and select "Oauth client ID".
Google app oauth login app 6
  • Now click "Web application" radio, and type your domain name and oauth callback
    • Under "Authorized Javascript origins", add your domain name: mydomain.com
    • Under "Authorized redirect URIs", add all the allowed callback url's to your application. For example if you are using CakeDC/Users Plugin, you'll need to add mydomain.com/auth/google
  • Then click "Save"
Google app oauth login app 7
  • Copy the Iauth client and secret id's into your application configuration
  • Be careful, some browsers will append blank spaces to the codes, remove any extra blank space (trim)
Google app oauth login app 8
  • Ensure the API is enabled, you can test your application now and check there is "Traffic" displayed
  You have now a Google app configured to provide Oauth2 login to your web application. Enjoy!                  

Login with Google Oauth2 in CakePHP using CakeDC/Users Plugin

This article is inspired by this question in Stack Overflow and belongs to a series of articles describing the step by step tutorial to configure CakeDC Users Plugin with the most commonly used Oauth2 providers, in this case we'll configure Google login. We'll assume you have a working CakePHP application with no Auth configured yet.

Setup

Use composer to install the CakeDC Users Plugin and the required oauth2 providers To be able to configure the callbacks in Google dashboard, you'll need to create a virtual host for you application. You don't need a working domain name, you could use something like "mydomain.dev" but Google requires a domain name (no localhost). composer require cakedc/users:@stable composer require league/oauth2-google:@stable Load it from your bootstrap.php file Plugin::load('CakeDC/Users', ['routes' => true, 'bootstrap' => true]); Run migrations to add 2 new tables: 'users' and 'social_accounts' bin/cake migrations migrate -p CakeDC/Users

Configuration

Load the Component in your src/Controller/AppController.php public function initialize() { parent::initialize(); // // ... // $this->loadComponent('CakeDC/Users.UsersAuth'); }

Create a new Google application

<?php // /config/users.php file contents $config = [ 'Users.Social.login' => true, 'OAuth.providers.google.options.clientId' => 'CLIENT_ID_HERE', 'OAuth.providers.google.options.clientSecret' => 'SECRET_HERE', ]; return $config;
  • Modify your bootstrap.php file to ensure the config file is loaded this way
Configure::write('Users.config', ['users']); //add this line before Plugin::load('CakeDC/Users... Plugin::load('CakeDC/Users', ['routes' => true, 'bootstrap' => true]); This file will override any configuration key present in the Plugin, you can check the configuration options here Configuration. Now you are ready to go to your login page and click "Sign up with Google". Upon successful login, a new user will be created in your users table and related oauth2 tokens will be saved in the social_accounts table. The new user created will have the "user" role (by default, but customizable). And based on your Auth rules, this user will be able to access your site. You are done!

Read more about CakeDC Users Plugin

Giving back to the community

This Plugin's development has been sponsored by the Cake Development Corporation. Contact us if you are interested in: We hope you've enjoyed this short tutorial covering the Google login, stay tunned for new CakePHP + Users Plugin tutorials coming soon...

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