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Quick start with Migrations plugin

In a previous post I gave an overview of the CakePHP Migrations plugin, what it does and why you should use it in your applications. This article will explain how to use it in a practical way. We are going to bake a simple blog application recipe application and see how migrations are integrated in the development process.

Since we recently moved all our open source projects on http://cakedc.github.com/, this sample application source code is also available there: Sample Migrations Application - Github (it is a CakePHP 1.3 application). Ready?

Bake a new application and add the migrations plugin

First of all, we need to bake a new CakePHP application. Easy enough to do using cake bake, then configure your database (an empty database is sufficient for now) and check that the home page is all green! If you have not set up your environment to use the CakePHP command line yet, take some time to do so... it worth it!

Adding the migrations plugin might also be a straightforward task. You can either download the archive containing the plugin code and unzip it in the "/plugins/migrations" folder of your application, or  add it as a git submodule with the following command:

git submodule add git://github.com/CakeDC/Migrations.git plugins/migrations

Then check that it is correctly installed by executing the following command from your application root:

cake migration help

If you see a list of available commands you can move on next step.

Create initial tables and bake the MVC

We now need something to migrate! Let's create some tables in the database. The application will have Users who can publish Recipes, each one having several Ingredients (of course Ingredients can be used in many Recipes). Here is a SQL dump of this simple database schema:

CREATE TABLE `ingredients` (
  `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `name` varchar(100) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;

CREATE TABLE `ingredients_recipes` (
  `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `ingredient_id` int(11) NOT NULL,
  `recipe_id` int(11) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;

CREATE TABLE `recipes` (
  `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `user_id` int(11) NOT NULL,
  `name` varchar(100) NOT NULL,
  `content` text NOT NULL,
  `created` datetime NOT NULL,
  `modified` datetime NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=MyISAM DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;

CREATE TABLE `users` (
  `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `name` varchar(100) NOT NULL,
  `password` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
  `created` datetime NOT NULL,
  `modified` datetime NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=MyISAM  DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;

As our goal here is not to focus on the application code itself, baked MVC from these tables might be sufficient... just run the command cake bake all for User, Recipe and Ingredient to bake'em all!

At this point we must have an application with an initial architecture ready to share. To start from here, one will just have to checkout the related commit... but don't you see a problem with this? How will he create the initial database? Maybe we could send him the SQL dump by email, or better commit it with the application! It is where the Migrations plugin comes in.

Generate the initial migration

"Be kind with your coworkers and include the database schema with your code... along with some sample data."

Let's use the migrations shell to generate an agnostic database schema containing our 4 tables, and an initial admin user account. To do so we just need to run the following command:

cake migration generate

After entering a name for the migration and selected the database dump option, we might have a new "/config/migrations" directory containing two files:

  • map.php representing the different migrations order,
  • name_of_the_migration.php a migration file containing all the necessary information to create your actual database. In the sample application it is named: "001_added_users_recipes_and_ingredients_tables.php". You might have noticed that we added a 001 prefix to the migration name to make it easier to see migrations order, it is a good practice.

We can now open the generated migration file (/config/migrations/001_added_users_recipes_and_ingredients_tables.php) and take a look at it. If you need more information and understand all available migration directives, you can read the plugin documentation.

For now we are just going to focus on the empty "after()" callback. This callback is triggered once the migration has been executed, and allow you to do whatever you want, given the direction of the migration: applied (up) or reverted (down). We are going to use this callback to create an initial admin User. Here is the code of the callback (as you are a CakePHP developer you might understand it quite easily):

function after($direction) {
	if ($direction === 'up') {
		if (!class_exists('Security')) {
			App::import('Core', 'Security');
		}

		$User = $this->generateModel('User');
		$user = array(
			'User' => array(
				'name' => 'admin',
				'password' => Security::hash('unsecurepassword', null, true)));
		$User->save($user);
	}
	return true;
}

Notice the use of the generateModel() method provided by the Migrations plugin. It is a shorthand allowing you to cleanly load a model in the callback to insert new data or update the existing. We could explain the reason of it more deeply but it is not the goal of this article, so just keep in mind that it is the best way to load a Model from callbacks!

Here we are! We can now share the application with anyone. After checked out the application, one will just have to run cake migration all to turn an empty database to a database containing all the needed tables, and an initial admin user to start using the application.

Categorize the recipes!

As the application evolves, we need to sort recipes by categories. This change involves two changes in the current database schema: a new categories table must be created, and a category_id field added to the recipes table.

Note: If you later want to use the migrations diff feature to generate a migration containing a diff between your previous database schema and the current one, you have to generate a Cake Schema of your database at this point. Simply run cake schema generate.

We can now update the recipes table and create a new categories table. Here is a simple SQL script:

CREATE TABLE `categories` (
  `id` int(11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `name` varchar(100) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=MyISAM  DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1;
ALTER TABLE `recipes` ADD `category_id` INT NOT NULL

Bake the MVC for categories and update recipes view pages to display the category so the application reflect these database changes. Before sharing these code changes, we need to generate a second migration describing the above SQL snippet in an agnostic way... and creating initial categories!

Nothing different than what we did previously: run cake migration generate, give a name to the migration, and choose between generating a diff from the schema.php file (if one was generated), generating a dump of the database (we will remove unnecessary instructions later) or generating an empty migration file. Once generated, it is always important to check the generated directives for the migration and fix them if needed. The migration must look like this:

var $migration = array(
	'up' => array(
		'create_table' => array(
			'categories' => array(
				'id' => array('type' => 'integer', 'null' => false, 'default' => NULL, 'key' => 'primary'),
				'name' => array('type' => 'string', 'null' => false, 'default' => NULL, 'length' => 100),
				'indexes' => array(
					'PRIMARY' => array('column' => 'id', 'unique' => 1),
				),
				'tableParameters' => array('charset' => 'latin1', 'collate' => 'latin1_swedish_ci', 'engine' => 'MyISAM'),
			),
		),
		'create_field' => array(
			'recipes' => array(
				'category_id' => array('type' => 'integer', 'null' => false, 'default' => NULL)
			),
		),
	),
	'down' => array(
		'drop_table' => array(
			'categories'
		),
		'drop_field' => array(
			'recipes' => array(
				'category_id'
			),
		),
	),
);

If you understood what we did in the first migration callback to add an initial user you might be able to implement this one. We would like to add initial categories: Starters, Main Dish and Desserts.

For lazy people, the code is here:

function after($direction) {
	if ($direction === 'up') {
		$Category = $this->generateModel('Category');
		$categories = array(
			array('name' => 'Starters'),
			array('name' => 'Main Dish'),
			array('name' => 'Desserts'));
		$Category->saveAll($categories);
	}
	return true;
}

Here we are again! The changes are ready to commit, and the commit will contains both code and database changes. One could update the database after checking out this commit by running: cake migration all.

The end

I hope this very simple use case and the code we built will help you to start using Migrations. As you could see it is very simple to use and will make your life much more easier: you would not have to worry anymore about the state of your database schema.

The source code of this tutorial is available on Github. If you found any bug or have any suggestion about the Migrations plugin, please create a ticket on Github. Comment this article if you have any question, and do not hesitate to share it if you found it useful!

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One CakePHP Project Per Day

The whole team here at CakeDC are big supporters and contributors of the CakePHP community. For this month, I decided to do “one CakePHP project per day” to share with the community.  Here are some of my projects so far:

Project 01 - Notes App

A one page note application using CakePHP 4 and Bootstrap 5. This project is  a good starting point to learn the framework. Link: https://github.com/rochamarcelo/one-project-a-day-challenge-01-notes  

Project 02 - Contact List

An application to manage contacts - you are able to list, add, edit and delete contacts, upload contact avatar images or use avatar images from gravatar.com . It was built using CakePHP 4, plugin friendsofcake/search, plugin josegonzalez/cakephp-upload, Gravatar, and Bootstrap 5.  Link: https://github.com/rochamarcelo/one-project-a-day-challenge-02-contact-list  

Project 03 - Recipe Box

An application to manage recipes, using CakePHP 4,  CouchDB and Bootstrap 5. This one is a good starting point to learn to use CouchDB with CakePHP, including how to list, add and edit recipes (documents). Link: https://github.com/rochamarcelo/one-cakephp-project-a-day-challenge-03-recipe-box  

Project 04 - Service Plan with Exchange rate

An application to list services and apply exchange rate using the api https://exchangeratesapi.io/documentation/ and CakePHP 4. In this one you see the custom namespace WebService to handle logic related to api as client. Link: https://github.com/rochamarcelo/one-cakephp-project-a-day-challenge-04-service-plans-ex-rate  

Project 05 - Polls

A fun poll app, using the awesome Bulma CSS Framework and CakePHP 4. A good example of model association and the CounterCache Behavior. Link: https://github.com/rochamarcelo/one-cakephp-project-a-day-challenge-05-polls-emmy  

Project 06 - Movie Theater Schedule

An application to see which movies are in the theaters and which hours by screen each day of the week. A good example of complex queries, model associations and seed data. Link: https://github.com/rochamarcelo/one-cakephp-project-a-day-challenge-06-movie-theater-schedule  

Project 07 - Podcast Finder

An application to help easily find podcasts and download episodes. In the source code you’ll find how to use the itunes api,  a structure to handle Model actions (that I think is a good option to make your models cleaner), and a way to parse podcasts feed (XML); example usage of dependency injection. The application was built with CakePHP 4 and Bulma CSS Framework. Link: https://github.com/rochamarcelo/one-cakephp-project-a-day-challenge-07-podcast-finder  

Project 08 - Url Shortener

An application to create short urls - a good example of how to create custom routes and use custom primary key types for a model. The application was built with CakePHP 4. Link: https://github.com/rochamarcelo/one-cakephp-project-a-day-challenge-08-url-shortener  

Project 09 - Quiz

Users can list quizzes, create quizzes and answer at any time. A good example of how to use MongoDB with CakePHP 4 with a base structure for Collection classes.  Link: https://github.com/rochamarcelo/one-cakephp-project-a-day-challenge-09-quiz  

Project 10 - File Transfer

An application to easily send files to anyone, create an account, upload the file and inform the person email to send to. Built with CakePHP 4, plugin CakeDC/Users,  plugin Josegonzalez/Upload,  plugin friendsofcake/bootstrap-ui, SMTP and Bootstrap. A good example to see the usage of these plugins. Link: https://github.com/rochamarcelo/one-cakephp-project-a-day-challenge-10-file-transfer  

Project 11 - Tasks

A one page application for  users to manage their tasks. The user can create and remove decks, create and complete tasks, and list tasks grouped by decks. Built with CakePHP 4, plugin CakeDC/Users and Bootstrap 5 Link: https://github.com/rochamarcelo/one-cakephp-project-a-day-challenge-11-tasks  

Project 12 - Blog

A blog website with blog posts and tags management, WYSIWYG editor, blog search, tags filtering. Built with CakePHP 4, CakeDC/Users plugin, friendsofcake/bootstrap-ui, Muffin/Slug, friendsofcake/search and Bootstrap 4 . A good example of usage of custom routes, route prefix, finders and multiple plugins. Link: https://github.com/rochamarcelo/one-cakephp-project-a-day-challenge-12-blog  

Project 13 - Olympic Medal Count

Perfect time for this project, right?! An application to display olympic medal count by country and sports. The source code uses CouterCache behavior and aggregated query. Built with CakePHP 4 and Bootstrap 5. Link: https://github.com/rochamarcelo/one-cakephp-project-a-day-challenge-13-olympic-medal-count
 

Project 14 - Smart Home Dashboard

An awesome dashboard to manage smart devices using MQTT Messaging, CakePHP 4, CakeDC/Users plugin, php-mqtt/client (testing with Mosquitto Broker) and Bootstrap 5. The application is able to publish messages to change device status and subscribe for status changes. Link: https://github.com/rochamarcelo/one-cakephp-project-a-day-challenge-14-smart-home-dashboard-mqtt    I hope that this initiative will somehow inspire others to put their Cake skills to work, and share their projects with the community. If you’d like to see my future projects and posts, you can follow me on Twitter, and I will share them all there! https://twitter.com/mrcodex

Logging CakePHP Applications To Team Communication

The log of applications is gold. It's an important part of the software, they represent the health of the application. By default, CakePHP will use the FileLog adapter which will write to /logs/ folder. It's hard to track the live issues, and by hard I mean you will need to connect to the server, open the file on /logs/ and look at the issue which you want to investigate.   What do you think if your application sends the error directly to your team communication (Slack, Teams, RocketChat) application? Will be easier to know about a new error after some deployment? This error is sneaky, and can be in command applications. Often, we only look at the errors when the users report it.   For this sample I will use Slack, but this approach can be implemented for any application.  All we need is to create a Log adapter and configure it. So…let’s bake that:     Now we may get errors like this:   That’s all bakers! I hope this article can be useful and you can improve your logs.  

A CakePHP Docker Development Environment

We sponsor a monthly CakePHP training session (register here https://training.cakephp.org ) where we cover different topics about the framework. One of our sessions, the "Getting Started with CakePHP 4" is aimed to help developers starting a new project quickly and following the best practices.   Our previous "recommended" quick setting for a CakePHP development environment was using a vagrant box. See details here:  https://www.cakedc.com/jorge_gonzalez/2018/01/17/using-a-vagrant-box-as-quick-environment-for-the-getting-started-with-cakephp-training-session. However, we've switched internally to use docker as our primary development environment and also we started using docker in our training sessions.   Here's a quick overview of a simple docker based development environment for CakePHP.  

1. Create a new CakePHP project skeleton using 

composer create-project cakephp/app myproject   A new folder "myproject" will be created with a CakePHP project skeleton inside. Go to this new directory and proceed.  

2. Create a new "docker-compose.yaml" file with the following contents

version: '3' services:   mysql8:     image: mysql:8     restart: always     container_name: mysql     environment:         MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: root         MYSQL_DATABASE: my_app         MYSQL_USER: my_app         MYSQL_PASSWORD: secret     volumes:       - ./:/application     ports:       - '9306:3306'     cakephp:     image: webdevops/php-apache:8.0     container_name: cakephp     working_dir: /application/webroot     volumes:       - ./:/application     environment:       - WEB_DOCUMENT_ROOT=/application/webroot       - DATABASE_URL=mysql://my_app:secret@mysql/my_app     ports:       - "8099:80"
 

3. Run "docker-compose up"

You'll create 2 containers named mysql and cakephp -  check the docker-compose configuration to see default database and users created in the mysql container, and the same environment params passed to the cakephp container via DATABASE_URL to allow the cakephp container to connect with the mysql database.   NOTE: the ports exposed are 9306 for mysql and 8099 for cakephp webserver. You can list them using docker-compose ps.  

4. Access your database and cakephp shell

  • To access the database you can use the command:
mysql --port 9306 -umy_app -psecret my_app   To restore a database dump for example, you can use the command: curl -L https://raw.githubusercontent.com/CakeDC/cakephp4-getting-started-session/master/my_app.sql |mysql --port 9306 -umy_app -psecret my_app   You can also configure any database tool to access the database in: localhost:9306  
  • To access the cakephp environment and shell you can use the command:
docker exec -it --user application cakephp bash   You'll go to the webroot folder, so in order to run the cake shell you'll need to: cd .. bin/cake 
  Now you have a working environment to play with the training session contents.   In this previous article, we covered another approach to setting up a local docker environment: https://www.cakedc.com/rochamarcelo/2020/07/20/a-quick-cakephp-local-environment-with-docker    We hope to see you in our next training session! https://training.cakephp.org   

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